From the moment of its origin to the present day, mankind has come a long way of development: states were created and destroyed, cities were destroyed and rebuilt, new civilizations replaced the old ones. Having reached a high level of scientific and technological progress, modern society has not become more humane and cannot always guarantee constancy and stability of life. Zones of tension constantly arise in the world, wars and conflicts occur, as a result of which people, at best, are left without housing and property, and at worst are at risk of losing their life and health. Troubled regions have long been considered many countries in the Middle East, a number of states on the African continent and Central Asia. Trying to avoid danger, the inhabitants of these countries are actively moving to other areas, becoming forced migrants or refugees.
The Russian Federation did not stand aside from these processes. In the early 1990s, the largest number of refugees arrived from Tajikistan, Georgia and Azerbaijan, and later from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well as Turkmenistan, Armenia and the Baltic countries. One of the latest examples of the situation that caused the emergence of forced migrants in Russia is related to events that occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine. The armed conflict in the southeast led to the emergence of refugees from Ukraine in Russia. The regulation of the ongoing migration process required the implementation of effective measures at the state level, contributing to the provision of the necessary conditions for the life of forced migrants and their active integration into the host society. Since among the refugees there were not only adults, but also children, the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation made it possible for them to enter Russian educational institutions to continue their studies. In this regard, the Russian educational system faced the need to integrate children from families of forced migrants from Ukraine into the educational process and ensure the most effective overcoming of the difficulties of school adaptation in an extremely short time.
A significant role in this process is given to educational institutions in which it is possible to provide special assistance and support to children from families of forced migrants and provide them with psychological and pedagogical support, ensuring a successful school adaptation process. There is no doubt that the stressful situation in which children find themselves, and the experienced difficulties associated with it, affect not only their physical, but also mental state. Children of primary school age require special attention, due to age and psychological characteristics, they are not able to independently overcome the extreme impact of an unfavorable situation.
The problem is that the organization of psychological and pedagogical support requires knowledge of the characteristics of children from families of forced migrants who have common cultural and linguistic traditions with representatives of the host country, which implies knowledge of the Russian language, the presence of common traditions, moral and moral values, religious beliefs. At the same time, experiencing the stressful situation of forced migration can lead to a deterioration in their psychological state, and such changes, in turn, can negatively affect the nature of the course of school adaptation in new conditions. Thus, the study of the features of school adaptation of primary school children from families of forced migrants using the example of Ukraine seems to be especially relevant, as it contributes to a more productive organization and implementation of adaptation measures in a general educational institution.
In domestic psychology, the study of the socio-psychological adaptation of children and adolescent migrants, their personality, the culture of interpersonal communication of children from migrant families with representatives of the host country, the psychological and pedagogical conditions and technologies of school adaptation of children from migrant families. It is impossible not to say that children from migrant families may encounter misunderstandings, they can be called names and jokes about them, which will also undoubtedly impede the process of school adaptation. In this situation, a great responsibility remains with the teacher and school psychologist.
In conclusion it is necessary to say that, despite the available studies on the problem of school adaptation, as well as the adaptation of children from migrant families to the conditions of schooling, the scientific literature does not fully disclose the problem of school adaptation of children from families of forced migrants who have common cultural and linguistic traditions with representatives of the host country.